**Title:** Electricity load pattern hedging with static forward strategies

**Authors:** Erkka Näsäkkälä, Jussi Keppo

**Date:** February 11, 2005

**Status:** Managerial Finance, Vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 116-137.

**Keywords:** Electricity markets, hedging, derivative instruments

We consider the partial hedging of stochastic electricity load pattern with static forward strategies. We assume that the company under consideration maximizes the risk adjusted expected value of its electricity cash flows. First, we calculate an optimal hedge ratio and after that we use this hedge ratio to solve the optimal hedging time. Our results indicate, for instance that agents with high load volatility hedge later than agents that have low load volatility. Moreover, negative correlation between forwards and electricity load pattern postpones the hedging timing.